Create a conversation
Incorporating someone else’s ideas and words into your own writing or speech can be confusing. Fortunately, one strategy can help. This guide will teach you the “source sandwich”, a model to integrate sources smoothly.
The Source Sandwich
- Introduce the source. Mention the source format, focus, and creator’s name (if applicable).
- Use a signal verb before the quote, paraphrase, or summary from the source.
- Signal verbs: reports, explains, confirms, emphasizes, or suggests
- Include a citation with the quote, paraphrase, or summary.
- After the source, explain how the source supports to your thesis or argument.
This source is a government document, with a government organization author (U.N.). The sandwich technique still works.
In a presentation with slides, the source sandwich is similar to writing. Introduce your sources with images or figures, and include in-text citations on slides.
Without slides, you will need a verbal citation, which is a verbal description of the source information.
In this video, a speech professor explains how to do this effectively.
Have more source questions?
Use this form to email your question to a Concordia librarian or request a research consultation.
Need help with writing?
The writing center can help with quotations, paraphrasing, and summarizing.